Online Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (OCSEA) refers to the use of the internet as a means to exploit or abuse children sexually. The rapid rise of technology and the easy access to online platforms, social media sites, chat rooms, etc. continues to influence the lives and habits of children all over the world. Such under-aged users of the internet, especially those from developing countries, lack knowledge and/or awareness on how to keep themselves safe online. This allows child sex predators unscrutinized avenues to trap them, groom them and molest them. 


  • Online Grooming

Online grooming (also known as the online solicitation of children for sexual purposes) is the process where a child sex offender builds up a close emotional connection or relationship with the child while online (though a portion of the grooming could also take place offline), with the purpose of sexually abusing and exploiting the child. The groomer would often pretend to be a good friend, peer, advisor or significant other and gain the child’s trust, before tricking them or pressuring them into engaging in sexual acts online or offline. Groomers usually use social media, gaming chat rooms, chat message boards, or forums to approach the child and further their aim.

  • Online Child Sexual Abuse Material

Accessing, possessing, producing and/or distributing of videos and/or images of child sexual abuse come under this category. Billions of such material is circulated via internet around the world, in mere seconds after it is initially posted online, and the children in such online child sexual abuse material are victimized over and over again each time these are viewed or shared by others.

  • Live Streaming 

This refers to the online broadcasting of sexual acts involving children in real time, in front of a camera, with the use of online video applications. Offenders often record or take screen shots of these live streams when they are shared. Some viewers of live streams may be passive where they pay and watch the product but do not act, while others would be active – interacting directly with the child or the offender doing the stream through a live chat board and requesting for sexual acts.

  • Sextortion

The act of coercing or blackmailing a child using personal information, videos or images depicting sexual acts involving the child for the purpose of monetary, sexual or any other gain. The child is deceived by the offender who threatens to reveal the acquired materials online or with loved ones, or to use it to bring harm to family and/or friends, if the child does not adhere to the commands of the offender.  

  • Sexting

Sexting is the act of an underage person exchanging sexualized messages or self-generated sexual images or videos through a mobile phone network, or through chat platforms or social media on the internet. While the activity is usually consensual, sexting can leave minors vulnerable to bullying, blackmail, online grooming or abuse. Such messages may get shared with others, or an offender may hack in to see them, and they may be used to humiliate or sextort the child involved. 

  • Cyber bullying

Cyber bullying is to deliberately upset, harass or threaten of another person using text messages, pictures and emails via the internet or mobile phone. This occurs mainly between peers, and there may be an imbalance of power involved (such as or bullying for race, color, caste, language, religion, wealth, sexual orientation, etc). The cyber bully or bullies may pressure the child being bullied to do sexual acts or may use images depicting sexual acts during the process. Such bullying could also take place through social media, discussion groups or even personal web pages.